Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores
Facilitators / Compilers/s:
Coenosia freyi is an endemic species of the Azores (Portugal), known from Faial and S. Miguel islands. From the historical data, this species potentially has a small Extent of Occurrence (1,087 km2) and Area of Occupancy (32 km2); and it is possible that this species has declined in the past as a result of human activity. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. Conservation/restoration of native forests and vegetation and of natural water bodies, as well as invasive plant species control, could potentially aid this species' conservation. Based upon the lack of recent data regarding this species' population, distribution, threats and ecology, it is not possible to accurately estimate the extinction risk of the species and it could theoretically fall into any category. Therefore, this species is assessed as Data Deficient (DD).
Coenosia freyi is an Azorean-endemic species that was described from the islands of Faial and S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), and known from some currently disturbed habitats. Based on the historical data (Frey 1945), the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) would be ca. 1,087 km² and the Area of Occupancy (AOO) would be ca. 32 km². However, there is no recent information regarding the distribution of this species, and the actual full distribution of the species is unknown.
No current population size estimates exist for this species, and the overall population size and trend are essentially unknown.
The ecology and traits of this species are unknown. Muscidae larvae develop in a wide variety of habitats, like dung, diverse decaying vegetation (from fruits to logs), fungi, nests of vertebrates, hives, dry to wet soil, fresh water or carrion. Larval food is known for only a few species, with most being apparently coprophagous or saprophagous, or either facultative or obligatory predators of insect larvae and other invertebrates (McAlpine et al. 1987). Adults are predators of other insects, saprophagous on dung or decaying organic matter, feed on pollen, or feed on blood and exudates from vertebrates, especially large mammals. Species that feed on vertebrate blood or exudates are often severe nuisances or important vectors of parasites (McAlpine et al. 1987) and pathogens. Coenosia freyi has been found on native and introduced vegetation in the vicinity of lakes or in an area of geothermal hotsprings (Furnas, S. Miguel).
A lack of information regarding the present status of this species precludes an assessment of potential threats. Nevertheless, given that this species was found near lakes and wet areas, it suggests that this species might be affected by future habitat declines as a consequence of climate change (Ferreira et al., 2016) and increased droughts. This species has also been found at sites that are currently disturbed, and as such, it can be assumed that habitat degradation caused by human activities or by invasive species can also potentially affect this species. Considering that one of the sites where it was present is an area of hotsprings, future violent geothermal activity might also affect this species.
The species is not protected by regional law. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. From what is known of its habitat preferences, conservation of native forests and vegetation and of natural water bodies, as well as invasive species control, could potentially aid this species' conservation. Historically at least, this species was present in areas that are currently included in the Natural Parks of Faial and S. Miguel.