IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Island Invertebrates Specialist Group


BackActinella armitageana (Lowe, 1852)

Actinella armitageana (Lowe, 1852)

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum:
  • Class: Mollusca
  • Order: Gastropoda
  • Family: Hygromiidae
VU Vulnerable
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Madeira


Seddon, M.B.

Cameron, R., Groh, K., Teixeira, D., Abreu, C., Cuttelod, A. & Neubert, E.

Abreu, C. & Killeen, I.

Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Although it could meet the criteria for Endangered, this species was originally considered to be borderline between Vulnerable and Near Threatened, based on the scale of the threats in this protected area. The main part of the range lies close to the area of  a major fire that occurred in August 2010, and hence this species is listed as Vulnerable (VU) D2, based on  the close proximity of the sites containing the sub-populations, the small area of suitable habitat and the vulnerability of the habitat to change from changes in grazing patterns or possibility of habitat degradation with reduced rainfall and increased risk of fires. It was originally listed as Vulnerable in 1994, and reaffirmed as Vulnerable D2 in 2000 (Seddon, pers. comm., 2009).  If parts of the range have been lost as part of the fire in August 2010, then a higher threat category should be considered, but survey work is required to confirm the current distribution along the ridge.

Geographic Range:

Actinella armitageana is endemic to the Madeiran Archipelago, where it is found on the island of Madeira. It is only found on the summit ridges around Pico Areiro and Pico Ruivo where it is uncommon (Seddon 2008, p.75, 174, Map 101).

Portugal - Madeira
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
20 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
Elevation Upper Limit:
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Madeira


The population trend is unknown, but this species is always found to be rare and localised in surveys between 1981 and 2000 (Seddon, pers. comm., 2009 , based on data from Robert Cameron and Laurence Cook, National Museum of Wales surveys and Brian Coles).

Habitat and Ecology

This species is found in grass tussocks around small crags and amongst scree on the high parts of the summit ridges.

Major Threat(s):

This species is found in high elevation grasslands with limited habitats close of crags and screes, where the major threats are changes in grazing regimes and potential disturbance from recreational activities such as path construction, litter, grass fires.

Conservation Actions

This species is mainly found in protected area. Further survey work is required to confirm the current distribution along the ridge.