Lamelas-López, L. & Mendonca, E.
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Pardosa acorensis is a wolf spider species occurring on all nine islands of the Azorean archipelago (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). It has a large Extent of Occurrence (EOO = 43,265 km²) and a relatively large Area of Occupancy (AOO = 636-2,228 km²). This species is the most widespread Azorean endemic spider and is particularly abundant from mid to high elevations in bogs, semi-natural pastures and a rare habitat at high elevations, the natural grasslands. The species is also able to occur in intensively managed pastures for dairy cattle. Based upon the large Extent of Occurrence, the good adaptation to human modified habitats, and few threats the species is assessed as Least Concern (LC).
Pardosa acorensis is a wolf spider species occurring in all the nine islands of the Azorean archipelago (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). Within these nine islands it is known from eighteen Natural Forest Reserves: Caldeiras Funda e Rasa and Morro Alto e Pico da Se (Natural Park of Flores); Caldeira do Faial and Cabeco do Fogo (Natural Park of Faial); Misterio da Prainha, Caveiro and Caiado (Natural Park of Pico); Pico Pinheiro and Topo (Natural Park of S. Jorge); Biscoito da Ferraria, Pico Galhardo, Caldeira Guilherme Moniz, Caldeira Sta. Barbara e Misterios Negros and Terra Brava (Natural Park of Terceira); Atalhada, Graminhais and Pico da Vara (Natural Park of S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Natural Park of S. Maria). The Extent of Occurrence (EOO) is 43,265 km2 and the Area of Occupancy (AOO) is 636-2,228 km2.
Pardosa acorensis is a widespread and highly abundant species (Borges and Wunderlich 2008). The species has a stable population and occurs on all nine islands of the Azores, in almost all habitats. We assume no threats for the population since the species is able to occur even in high intensively managed pastures for dairy cattle.
Current Population Trend: Stable
This is the most generalist Azorean endemic spider, occurring in almost all known Azorean native and arthropogenic habitats (Borges and Wunderlich 2008, Borges et al. 2008). However, the species is particularly abundant from mid to high elevations in bogs, semi-natural pastures and a rare habitat at high elevations, the natural grasslands. The species is also able to occur in intensively managed pastures for dairy cattle. Females were observed carrying egg sacs in spring and summer. Adults are active during the day, as well as at night. The species occurs from sea level to the highest elevation at Pico mountain (Pico island).
In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010). Despite major ongoing changes in many of the habitats in which the species occurs, the populations now seem to be stable with no known threats. However, based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts, and habitat shifting and alteration).
The species is not protected by regional law, but its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of all nine Azorean islands). Degraded bog areas, degraded due to invasive plant species (particularly Hedychium gardnerianum) and pastures should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. Formal education and awareness are needed to allow future investments in restoring bog habitats. Further research is needed into its ecology and life history to obtain adequate information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary to develop a monitoring plan for the wider invertebrate community in its habitat in order to contribute to a potential future species recovery plan, if needed. A monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality