IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Island Invertebrates Specialist Group


BackStrophosoma occidentalis (Crotch, 1867)

Strophosoma occidentalis (Crotch, 1867)

True weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Coleoptera
  • Family: Curculionidae
EX Extinct
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


Danielczak, A.


Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Neocnemis occidentalis (now Strophosoma occidentalis (Crotch, 1867)) was an endemic species from Sta. Maria (Azores, Portugal). It had a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 0-4 km²) and area of occupancy (AOO = 0-4 km²). Exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual (Borges et al. 2016). The species is considered Extinct.

Geographic Range:

Neocnemis occidentalis is a single island endemic species from Sta. Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). This  species is considered extinct in Azores (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
0-4 (km2)
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
0-4 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
450 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
550 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


The species is only known from a single subpopulation. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from historical records. According to Terzopoulou et al.(2015) this species is extinct.

Habitat and Ecology

The species occured in the native forest of Santa Maria Island (Azores), with an range between 450 and 550 m Asl. It is considered extinct. It is a phytophagous species.

Major Threat(s):

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts).

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends.