Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores
Nunes, R. & Lamelas-Lopez, L.
Facilitators / Compilers/s:
Phlogophora cabrali is an endemic species present in Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and S. Miguel islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). It has a relatively small area of occupancy (AOO = 94 km²) and a large extent of occurrence (EOO = 6,194 km²). The species can be found in native forest fragments, but also in the habitats which are dominated by forest plantations and patches of semi-natural and exotic vegetation. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change. The species is assessed as Near Threathend (NT) due to small AOO and decline in habitat quality.
Phlogophora cabrali is an endemic species present in Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and S. Miguel islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from native forest as well as habitats with Rubus spp. species located in and around allochthonous coniferous forests (Wagner 2015) . The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 6,200 km² and the maximum estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 92 km².
This species is relatively abundant in Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and S. Miguel islands, occurring mostly in the native vegetation and naturalised plants at medium and high elevations (between 400 and 800 m Asl), in particular, in areas with Rubus species located in and around exotic coniferous forests as well as laurel woodlands (Wagner 2015). This species presents a stable population.
P. cabrali occurs in humid, wind-protected places most often between 400 and 1000 m Asl (in Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and S. Miguel islands) (Borges et al. 2010), and the larvae feeds preferably on Rubus species that are located in and around allochthonous coniferous forests as well as native woodlands (Wagner 2015). This species is possibly a specialist herbivore and has several generations per year. Altitudinal range: 100-800 m.
In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality, mostly the creation of pastures (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently invasive plants Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat. These changes are decreasing the relative cover of endemic plants and changing the soil cover (decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns) with the expansion of other plants and potential threats to the species. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).
The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and S. Miguel). Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to learn about the ecological requirements of the species and the feeding substrate of the larva, and find extant specimens. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2010).