IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Island Invertebrates Specialist Group

Species

BackNesotes azoricus (Crotch, 1867)

Nesotes azoricus (Crotch, 1867)

Darkling beetle (English)

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Coleoptera
  • Family: Tenebrionidae
CR Critically Endangered
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores

Archipelago(s):
Azores

Reviewer/s:
Danielczak, A.

Contributor/s:

Facilitators / Compilers/s:


Assessment Rationale:

Nesotes azoricus is a single island endemic species from S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Furnas (S. Miguel). It has a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 0-8 km²) and area of occupancy (AOO = 0-8 km²). There is a continuing decline in the EOO, AOO, extent and quality of habitat as well as the number of mature individuals as a result of major land-use change in the last 50 years. Main recent past and ongoing threats are destruction of habitat for creation of urban areas, industrial plantations of Cryptomeria japonica and pastures. The last record dates from 1867. Based upon the small geographic range of the species with only one location and continuing decline of its habitat area and quality, it is assessed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct). Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find possible extant specimens.

Geographic Range:

Nesotes azoricus is a single island endemic species from S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Furnas (S. Miguel). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 0-8 km² and the maximum estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 0-8 km². The species is considered possibly extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015)

Regions:
Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
0-8 (km2)
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
0-8 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
500 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
600 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Palearctic
Presence:
Possibly Extinct
Origin:
Endemic Azores
Seasonality:
Resident

Population:

The species is only known from a single subpopulation in S. Miguel island. The abundance is unknown and possibly decreasing due to major urban and agriculture changes. According to Terzopoulou et al. (2015) this species is almost extinct.

Habitat and Ecology

The species occurs in a single native forest patch in the S. Miguel island (Furnas), with an altitudinal range between 500 and 600 m. It is a detritivore species that feed of decomposition organic matter and lives in the soil.

Major Threat(s):

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Main recent past and ongoig threats are destruction of habitat for creation of urban areas, industrial plantations of Cryptomeria japonica and pastures and the spread of invasive olants (Hedychium gardnerianum). Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of S. Miguel; Área de Paisagem Protegida das Furnas). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens at Furnas but also in native forests in Pico da Vara, and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan.