Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Madeira
Cameron, R., Groh, K., Cuttelod, A. & Neubert, E.
Facilitators / Compilers/s:
Seddon (2008) suggested that this species should be listed as Vulnerable B2ab(iii) (version 3.1) due to small number of known localities (under eight), some of which are threatened by declining quality of habitat due to tourist development and changing water management affecting microclimate. This species has a restricted extent of occurrence of 300 km² and is known from less than ten locations, it is therefore listed as Vulnerable (VU) B2ab(iii).
This species is endemic to the Madeiran archipelago, recorded as living and subfossil on Madeira, with possible subfossil records from Porto Santo (Cameron et al. 2006, Seddon 2008). It is known from four main valleys, three in central Madeira and one at the north coast, with several closely located sites within these valleys (Seddon 2008, map 112, p. 175).
There are no recent data on population trends, but the species is often rare, present only with a few individuals per sample, so it is assumed to live at low density.
This species is found in the laurisilva forest at intermediate and high elevations. Wollaston (1878) also describes the species as abundant in the chestnut woodland above Funchal, however this was not found in surveys in Cameron, Cook or Seddon over the last 40 years. It is usually amongst leaf-litter on rock crags, in deep crevices on crags or at the base of trees.
There has been some changes in the habitats on the northern valleys over the last 100 years, relating to off-take of water for irrigation to the south side of the island. There is also some development for tourism along the tops of the valleys via the levadas. However, much of the laurisilva forest is now in protected areas, hence the loss is more minimal. There may be some impact from storms in February 2010 and the fires in August 2010
No conservation action plan is known for this species, however part of the range does lie in a Special Protected Area (Laurisilva of Madeira) as well as in Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) ( Maciço Montanhoso Central da ilha da Madeira). Habitat monitoring for impact of severe weather events on the species habitat and possible impact of predators (rodents) on this species.