Nunes, R. & Lamelas-Lopez, L.
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Eudonia melanographa is an endemic species present in the islands of the Flores, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Nuss et al. 1997, Borges et al. 2010). It has a relatively small area of occupancy (AOO = 104 km²), but a large extent of occurrence (EOO = 20,113 km²). It is usually associated with native forest, occurring in two Natural Forest Reserves of Azores, but also occurs in human modified habitats at low altitude. It is a phytophagous species, closely associated with Azorean endemic trees and has possibly two generations per year. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change. The species is assessed as Vulnerable due to small AOO, the small number of locations and the decline in habitat quality.
Eudonia melanographa is an endemic species present in the islands of the Flores, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Nuss et al. 1997, Borges et al. 2010). The species was observed flying in a quarry on the western slope of the volcano Pico (Nuss et al. 1997), wich belongs to the Natural Park of Pico island. It can also be found in two Natural Forest Reserves of Morro Alto e Pico da Sé (Flores) and Caldeira Sta. Bárbara e Mistérios Negros (Terceira). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 20,100 km² and the maximum estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 104 km².
E. melanographa is a widespread but low abundant species. All the nine known subpopulations occur in a wide range of altitudes in the Azorean islands (Flores, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel), from 10 to 800 m. The species presents currently stable populations.
The adults fly from March to October, and they rest and fly around rupicolous lichens (Nuss et al. 1997), with probably two generations per year. The larva is unknown, but considered to be a specialist herbivore and the adult is frequently seen as pollinator. Altitudinal range: 10-800 m.
In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality, mostly the creation of pastures (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently invasive plants Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat. These changes are decreasing the relative cover of endemic plants and changing the soil cover (decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns) with the expansion of other plants and potential threats to the species. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).
The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Flores, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and São Miguel). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2010).