Nunes, R. & Lamelas-Lopez, L.
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Eudonia luteusalis is an endemic species present in the islands of Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Nuss et al. 1997, Borges et al. 2010). It has a relatively small area of ocupancy (AOO = 160 km²), but a large extent of ocurrence (EOO = 32,000 km²). It is usually associated with native forest, occurring in eleven Natural Forest Reserves of Azores. It is a specialist phytophagous species, closely associated with Azorean endemic trees and have possibly two generations per year. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change. The species is assessed as Least Concern (LC) due to the widespread distribution and high abundance in the canopies of endemic trees, having also a high range of altitude occupancy (0-1400 m).
Eudonia luteusalis is an endemic species present in the islands of Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Nuss et al. 1997, Borges et al. 2010), known from eleven Natural Forest Reserves of Morro Alto e Pico da Sé (Flores); Caldeira do Faial (Faial); Mistério da Prainha, Caveiro and Caiado (Pico); Topo (S. Jorge); Biscoito da Ferraria, Pico Galhardo, Caldeira Sta. Bárbara e Mistérios Negros and Terra Brava (Terceira); and Pico Alto (Sta. Maria). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca32,000 km² and the maximum estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 160 km².
The species is common in medium and high altitude areas in several islands (Flores, Faial, Pico S. Jorge,Terceira, S. Miguel and Sta. Maria islands). The species presents currently a stable population.
The species occurs in native forests of Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal). The larva is unknown, but considered to be a specialist herbivore, and the adult is frequently seen as pollinator. Known flight period: July, August, October (Nuss et al. 1997), with probably two generations per year. Altitudinal range: 100-1400 m.
In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality, mostly the creation of pastures (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently invasive plants Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat. These changes are decreasing the relative cover of endemic plants and changing the soil cover (decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns) with the expansion of other plants and potential threats to the species. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).
The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Faial, Flores, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and Sta. Maria). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2010).