IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Island Invertebrates Specialist Group


BackCalathus vicenteorum Schatzmayr, 1939

Calathus vicenteorum Schatzmayr, 1939

Ground beetle (English)/ Carocho (Portuguese)

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Coleoptera
  • Family: Carabidae
EX Extinct
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


Paulo A.V. Borges

Danielczak, A.

Lamelas-Lopez, L.

Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Calathus vicenteorum was endemic to Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal). It had a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 0-4 km²) and area of occupancy (AOO = 0-4 km²). The species occurred only at one location and is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The last record dates from 1957. Exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual (Borges et al. 2016). Therefore, it is assessed as Extinct.

Geographic Range:

Calathus vicenteorum is a single island endemic species restricted to Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from high elevation native forest (550 m a.s.l.). This large bodied species is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The size of its remaining native habitat is 0.09 km².

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
0-4 (km2)
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
0-4 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
450 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
550 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


The species is only known from a single subpopulation. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from historical records. According to Terzopoulou et al.(2015) this species is extinct.

Habitat and Ecology

The species occurred in the native forest of the Santa Maria Island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 450 and 550 m. It is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The last specimens found in 1957 were captured associated with Calluna vulgaris. This is a predator species with nocturnal activity.

Major Threat(s):

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and  habitat shifting & alteration). The most important ongoing threat to this species is Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardneranum and Pittosporum undulatum) that are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends.